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Wagner Electric Motor Wiring Diagram
Why does an electric motor suddenly run backwards? Here we explain the causes and remedies for an engine running backwards and also discuss engines designed for reverse direction.
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A/C Electric Motor Troubleshooting: A troubleshooting guide to help diagnose and repair most electric motor problems for motors found in HVAC equipment in buildings, such as air conditioners, furnace or air handling fans, oil burner motors, sump pumps, and condensate return. pumps .
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In this article we explain why an electric motor suddenly runs backwards and we include instructions on how to reverse the direction of small electric motors with simple wiring changes.
The photo at the top of the page is taken from an oil burner electric motor, not an air conditioner fan motor or a pump motor, but you will see that these electric motors all look very similar.
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Our photo to the left illustrates the motor as typically found in a direct-drive HVAC blower or air handler.
While our page top photo shows the red reset button very clearly, the reset button on the motor on the left can be hard to spot. Sometimes the reset button on an electric motor is hard to find, and
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What are the basic components of an electric A/C motor used in heating and air conditioning?
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Before discussing how to check air conditioning or heating system electric motors, let’s make sure we know what motor components may be involved.
When examined in detail an electric motor has quite a few components, switches, wires, possibly capacitors, oiling ports and more, but every HVAC electric motor has four basic components:
In addition to the basic electric motor components above there are two other characteristics to be aware of when motor problems occur.
Which way does an electric motor work – can electric motors work backwards? Information can be found on the data label of an electric motor. Unidirectional electric motors work in one direction only: either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) but not both.
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In many applications, electric motor-driven equipment will not operate properly unless the motor drive shaft rotates in a predetermined direction: clockwise or counterclockwise.
Examples include HVAC single-blow squirrel cage fans, whose blades will not move air if the fan runs backwards, and oil burner or well pump engines, where the oil pump or water pump will not move oil or water if the pump motor “is driven in. error.”
In a fixed-direction electric motor, such as an HVAC blower or A/C or heat pump compressor, the motor charges its start capacitor every time the winding starts to “kick” the motor in the right direction.
Bi-directional electric motors work in both directions and are used in applications where the direction the motor rotates does not matter to the equipment being driven. “What?” you say Here’s a nice example – your home microwave.
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Electric motors need a kick, or as an engineer says, a starting torque to overcome resistance as the motor spins from standstill. Compared to electric motors used in oil burners and air conditioner compressors, we don’t need such an expensive and heavy electric motor to turn the turntable into a microwave oven.
Instead, microwave (and some other self-inverting) electric motors use a clever design that allows the starting coil to be eliminated and a lower cost and less powerful electric motor to be used.
When the motor is stopped the driven mechanism is pressed against the drive shaft of the motor, providing a “drive load” (microwave turntable) against the direction in which the motor shaft ultimately rotates.
When the motor is asked to start again, it encounters this additional load due to the resistance provided by the mechanical mechanism in the turntable, which itself is “wound” or loaded by the previous rotation of the table.
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The microwave motor, encountering that load, begins to rotate in the opposite direction, the one under a lower load, giving a short “no-load” break that accelerates the microwave motor’s turntable motor.
In short, the combination of the load or rotational resistance provided by the turntable mechanism and the automatic reverse direction function in the electric motor causes the microwave motor to turn and the turntable to turn – which is why it will probably turn every time you turn on your microwave. . in the opposite direction of its previous cycle.
Note: Yes it is possible for some electric motors to run “backward” after damage to the start capacitor or motor windings.
We have occasionally reported that the HVAC motor runs “wrong” or sometimes starts running erratically. For example the blower fan in the air handler starts and runs backwards, as do some air conditioning compressor unit cooling fan motors.
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Post a question or comment about what appears to be an example of an electric motor running backwards in an air handler.
In our photo to the left you can see the notation on this electric motor data label indicating that the motor does not reverse and rotates counterclockwise – indicated by the words CCW ROTATION (red arrow).
At Electric Motor Data Label we explain all the information that can be found on an electric motor data label.
See: When shopping for replacement electric motors, combustion units and fans, make sure they are all compatible. For example in oil fired heating equipment, oil burner fuel units (a mechanical heating oil pump driven by an oil burner electric motor with a clutch) can be purchased as CW or CCW equipment.
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If the fuel is not turned in the right direction, the heating device will not work – it will not receive fuel and the drive motor and connecting parts may be damaged.
If the squirrel cage fan on the oil burner or inside the air handler is turned backwards it will not move much air and the equipment will not operate properly.
Caution: Determine proper rotation before connecting motor to load. Keep hands and clothing away from rotating parts.
Caution: As we warn in all of these electrical work articles, if you are not trained in proper, safe electrical work, stay away from your electric motor – you could be shocked or killed.
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With some electric motors it is possible to change or reverse the direction of the motor by changing the wire connections.
Usually purple and yellow wires or wire pairs allow this change. But depending on your electric motor type, phases (1 phase vs. 3 phase) and voltage (120VAC or 240 VAC or other), other wires and wire color schemes are used. Below we give several examples showing which wires to change to change the direction of an electric motor.
If your motor doesn’t use purple and the wiring is different (depending on whether the motor runs on 120V or 240V or something), here are some other wiring change examples to change the direction of the electric motor:
If your motor uses a start capacitor, see which motor winding is wired to the start capacitor – that’s the start winding.
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In addition to following the starter capacitor cable to the coil, another way to determine your motor’s starter coil is to measure the electrical resistance across the coil.
The starting winding has a higher resistance than the winding (for small 120VAC motors the starting winding has 3x the resistance of the winding – maybe about 4 ohms while a 240VAC motor has more than 16 ohms in the starting winding. 2x the winding. )
In addition to following the starter capacitor cable to the coil, another way to determine your motor’s starter coil is to measure the electrical resistance across the coil. The starting winding has a higher resistance than the winding (for small 120VAC motors the starting winding has 3x the resistance of the winding – maybe about 4 ohms while a 240VAC motor has more than 16 ohms in the starting winding. 2x the winding. )
For motors wired to run on 120VAC or 240VAC, the starter coil is usually just 120VAC – powered by one leg of your two 240VAC wires.
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For typical small induction motors it is very easy to reverse the direction of motor rotation by swapping the leads of the motor start capacitor before or after the auxiliary (start) winding. (Qi 2019).
In a 3-phase motor – supplied with only 3 leads –
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