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Electric Water Pump Wiring Diagram
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This article describes how to troubleshoot a submersible well pump that causes power outages and only pumps water at a slow, low speed and pressure.
Then, using simple electrical tests, the homeowner traced the water pump problems to the well pump wiring.
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How to check for voltage, current, resistance, blown fuses, poor pump operation or well pump failure to help diagnose well pump problems.
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Be careful: electric wires are dangerous: they can shock or kill you. If you are untrained and unfamiliar with proper, safe electrical wiring, do not attempt;
2018-12-26 (mod) – How to check submersible pump wiring and motor – standard resistance values
It seems to me that the motor is overheating or malfunctioning and drawing high current (amps).
1. Test the pump wire for damaged or damaged insulation (low resistance), breaks (infinite resistance), and dead shorts (zero or near zero).
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Pump wire tests are performed with a separate connection between each wire (at the well) and ground.
If the well casing is metal then connect the ground lead from the VOM/DMM (make sure it is a clean connection) to the well casing or metal tubing). If the well casing is plastic, you must connect your ground to the lead circuit.
It’s hard to fully check the wiring for leaks or loose shorts without pulling the wires out of the well because the end of the wire will have a connection through the pump motor – it has some resistance, but not much that we know of! without assistance from the pump manufacturer.
Caution: if you don’t know how to safely perform electrical wiring and circuit testing, you could be shocked or killed or start a building on fire. Turn off the power and disconnect the pump from the circuit.
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With the power and wiring turned off at the end of the house with the pump OPEN, so the pump or controls are not operated.
If you know how to use a DMM or VOM safely – you can get killed if you make a wiring mistake –
You or your electrician can use a DMM or VOM in Ohm mode to measure circuit resistance.
You need to know the approximate total length of the wire because there is a correction factor to add to the length of the wire.
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You can also check the resistance between each lead and ground – and sometimes it will show a short between one wire and ground rather than between the wires.
See pages 24 and 25 for notes on how to check pump wire resistance.
I have a 240v submersible well pump that worked fine for about 2 years but now the 20amp breaker keeps tripping but at different intervals.
Can work all day or travel in 5 minutes. How do I test the cable to see if there is a short between the house and the well or if the well itself has a short? House wiring is buried really deep.
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My house does very strange things. First, I have a 25 amp breaker for my 1.5 HP pump that is 160 feet down. in the last days it increased the breakers 5 times
I took the motor out and it is open (infinite resistance) to put both feet on the ground and 3.2 ohms between the 2 terminals the motor goes to.
My symptoms are that it takes about 7-10 minutes to fill my well (I have a 120 gallon galvanized tank, no gall bladder). When the water pressure in the tank reaches about 30 psi, the water in the house begins to mix air and water.
I replaced the boot cover. because the pump sounds like it’s working hard when it starts, but it smooths out as the pressure builds. replacing the caps did not help.
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I thought the caps might be bad and it draws too much current during start up and trips the breakers. I don’t know if the system is flooded or not. Do you have any ideas?
Yes, breakers in the pump circuit often mean that the pump is drawing high current or that there is an actual short circuit.
If we do not have a short circuit in the chain, unfortunately, the pump motor is suspected to fail. Remember that motor tests are difficult because once the parts start spinning, the internal winding can move, changing the electrical characteristics of the device.
For readers who are professional and know how to use electrical test tools, please refer to safety and completeness
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I’m speaking more from my own experience, but from what I’ve recently learned there is a useful relationship between engine torque and conditions other than a failed engine.
Illustration top left: The orange extension cord used to open the pump pressure control switch is an incorrect and dangerous electrical installation.
So we could argue that a pump running against a flooded pressure tank could have a higher than normal pressure, but I doubt it. A water-pressurized tank will quickly go into overdrive unless the cut-off pressure is reached immediately and the pump shuts off (if the pressure control switch itself is faulty and the tank is not sensing pressure).
I think I’ll pull the pump and check for mounting bearings, damaged impellers, and if it looks good, I might take it to an electric motor repair shop for more professional testing.
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See also Single Phase Pump Service Manual [PDF] (2005) Goulds, ITT, Web: www.goulds.com Available from the company or downloadable for resistance tests of well pump motors and wiring.
Check that your well pump wiring is properly sized for the distance from the building to the well pump (for example, for a well submersible pump). This table is a general guideline for pump wire sizes.
I have been working on this thing. I was on vacation the last few days, but I had some problems, so I had to come home.
The picture on the left, not of Joe’s house, shows an unshielded 240V wire to the well cover above the water well located in the basement of the building.
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I showed 238V in the cut off box of the control box. when the pump was on I would release one leg which would trigger the double pole breaker
. I tested this theory by taking my generator and attaching the 230V side of the pump (I actually saw a foot off with the meter). I have a 7000 watt generator so I had no problem running the pump. It took about 5 minutes to fill the 120 gallon tank.
[For the water tank pressure] it took forever to get past 25 psi, but after hitting 30 psi it took about 2 minutes to reach the cutoff pressure of 68 psi (my pump and tank are too far from my house) and I adjusted the pressure).
I had my wives and kids shower, run the washing machine, and even use the yard sprinkler for hours on end, watching the pressure gauge and everything worked fine.
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That said, the electrical wiring from the breaker box to the well was buried underground. I was digging around today and found a burn in the insulation. I cut the insulation and found that my drain leg was damaged when the pump started.
I thought there was yeast in the wire when I buried it and didn’t feel it. Although the voltage was present when the pump was not running, no current was drawn.
When the current started to flow through the wire, there was enough insulation to trip the breaker – just like a ground fault in a 480V system.
I am an industrial electrician and very familiar with 480V-2300V systems. I didn’t know I saw air pressure in the tank or something along those lines in my original post.
Figure 4 15. Wiring Diagram For Water Pump
A loose wire can cause malfunction of the interval pump or other electrical equipment, as well as a hard failure, which could mean power or blown fuses.
Check that the pump pressure control switch is on and that the pump is on
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