The electric fence charger circuit presented here is basically a high voltage pulse generator. The super high voltage comes from a normal car wiring harness.
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An astable multivibrator is used to generate the frequency required to drive the wire. The second astable is used to control the pulses fed to the fence.
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An electric fence is a high-voltage electric barrier that causes a painful shock if touched or handled. Therefore, the fence essentially acts as a barrier to both animal and human intruders, preventing them from crossing the forbidden border.
I designed and tested the electric fence charger circuit myself and it proved to be powerful enough for the application.
A fence charging circuit can produce up to 20,000 volts, not to mention the associated death rate. However, the pulse is interrupted, giving the subject enough time to recognize it, recover and expel it.
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The pulses generated are so strong that they can bend and fly away for short periods of about an hour. Therefore, the fence conductors must be sufficiently separated to prevent sparking and spark leakage. If not corrected, it can significantly reduce the efficiency of the unit.
The winding ratio of the ignition coil is specifically designed and intended to create a high voltage arc between two closely spaced conductors within the ignition chamber to initiate the ignition process in the vehicle.
Basically, it’s just a step-up converter that can boost the voltage applied to the input level of the primary winding to a monstrous level on its output level or secondary winding.
Warning: Some points in the circuit and ignition coil are very dangerous to touch when the ignition is on. In particular, the exhaust pipe of a burning pipe is too deadly and can cause paralysis. Adequate precautions are strongly recommended. The author cannot be held responsible for any errors.
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TR1 and TR2 are two conventional step-down transformers with secondary windings connected through SCR2. The main input winding TR1 can be selected according to country requirements.
The IC 555 together with its associated components form a typical astable multivibrator stage. The supply voltage of the circuit comes from the secondary of TR1 itself.
The output from the astable is used to activate the triac BT136 and the whole system at a constant constant speed according to the setting of P1.
During the ON period, the triac connects 12 volts AC from TR1 to the secondary of TR2 so that a potential of 230 volts is immediately available on the other side of TR2.
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This voltage is fed to the voltage generator stage which consists of SCR1 as the main active element along with diodes, resistor and capacitor C4.
The voltage from SCR1 is deposited into the primary of the ignition coil where it is pulled up to a voltage of 20,000 volts immediately to the secondary winding. This tension can be properly carved into the fence.
The high voltage produced by this electric fence charger must be used carefully along the entire length of the fence.
The two poles of the wires connected to the fence wire should be at least 2 inches apart.
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Fence posts should be made of plastic or similar materials, never metal and even wood (wood likes to absorb moisture and can cause leaks).
The above concept can also be implemented using a BJT to generate pulses for the transformer as shown below.
Adjust the 1M pot so that the ON time of IC 555 is shorter than the OFF time to reduce current consumption.
The above fence charge is relatively weak with its specifications and stronger, if you need something smaller, the following small fence charge is very useful, which can be used to repel various pests such as cockroaches, cockroaches, worms, slugs from various. Small places are needed, such as balcony gardens, balcony pots or just for storing food, etc.
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Below is a reference circuit for a mini fence charger that can be understood with the help of the following points:
The upper part of the transformer valve basically provides the amplification of the base of the transistor with the help of C2. T1 is limited in the conducting state until C2 is fully charged, ending the latch and forcing the transistor to start the conduction sequence again.
R1, which can be a 1K resistor, is placed to limit the base gain for T1 to provide damping, while VR1, which can be a 22k preset, can be adjusted very well to achieve the effective level of T1.
C2 can be fine-tuned by trying to increase the value until maximum output is achieved at the output of the transformer.
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The transformer can be an iron-wound step-down transformer (500mA) commonly used in AC/DC transformer power supplies.
The instantaneous output through the output of the transformer can be evaluated at the secondary level, for example, if the secondary voltage is 220 V, in which case the output at this level can be expected.
The upper level can be very high, or it can be increased by diode connection, capacitor charge pump setting, corresponding to the Cockroft-Walton generator system.
The configuration will increase the 220 V level to the number of volts that can be forced to spark at the terminal terminals used as appropriate for the charge pump circuit.
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The tip of the high-pressure end can be properly routed along the entire length of the area to be protected from insects and the intended fence filling operation can be carried out.
The wires of the fence must be separated by a minimum distance so that sparks do not fly around, even if there is no external intrusion of insects.
The mini-fence charger circuit concept described can be further applied to mosquito bat smashing purposes by replacing the iron transformer with a ferrite core.
Because the top fence charger can run on a 12V battery, it is an ideal choice for remote locations that may not have access to AC power.
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The oscillator circuit is built using two NOT gates N1 and N2 from a 4049 hex inverting integrated circuit. It has PWM control using the R2 path. This can be used to adjust the PWM output to adjust the output voltage and charging efficiency of the fence.
The MOSFET switches to ground whenever positive input pulses at the gate of Q1 connect the primary winding of T1 via a 12 volt source.
When the MOSFET gate signal is low, the current between Q1 and the transformer core is blocked. This leads to a high voltage pulse generated through the second winding of T1.
This causes a high voltage of the order of about 20 kv to be generated at the output of T1. This outlet can be connected to a fence for electrical purposes.
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Another simple fence charger circuit design is shown in the figure above. This circuit is designed to operate with an input voltage of 220 V or 120 V AC. Therefore, this circuit can only be used where there is an AC outlet.
The SCR together with the capacitor C2 forms a capacitive discharge circuit that operates with a 310 V DC input.
310 V from 220 V RMS input or 170 V from 120 V RMS maximum input voltage is achieved by two transformer stages connected mutually.
This allows the circuit to receive a high voltage low current maximum DC input for capacitive discharge purposes.
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When the AC power supply is switched on, the 220 V or 120 V from TR2 will be converted to supply the required high voltage via the bridge rectifier and capacitor C1.
The peak of the DC current passes through R2 and the primary side of the tube fires until C2 is fully charged. When fully charged, it will develop enough voltage to turn on the zener diode D5.
D5 now conducts and triggers the SCR. The SCR turns on and discharges C2 through it. This causes the maximum DC stored in C2 to immediately flow through the primary tube.
As a result, high voltages of the order of 20 kV are induced on both sides of the ignition coil. This 20 kV output is used to electrify or charge the intended fence.
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If you have access to an AC 220V AC or 120V AC mains outlet close at hand, you may be able to use the following simple capacitor-based AC fence circuit for this purpose without involving any complex circuitry.
Note: Although capacitors are used to reduce the input current to A level, you still get output from it.
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