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I have a 6v Ride On toy car that I want to upgrade to 12v without upgrading the entire electrical system as it is only designed for 6v. My problem? I am not in the electrical business and am trying to teach myself and would like some feedback on my wiring diagram. I will try to give as much detail as possible.
12v Wiring Electric Toy Car Wiring Diagram
For anyone who does not know the relevant type of car; Currently, a 6V battery powers a remote control compatible system. When it’s on, I can choose between remote or manual use, and in manual mode, between forward and reverse. By pressing a foot pedal or an input from the remote, the PCB on the car magically calculates an output and sends 6 volts positive or negative to the rear motors to go forward or reverse respectively. (I can upload a picture of the front and back of this PCB if anyone is interested in tracing it)
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I can easily achieve most of the above, except the reverse polarity interpretation for reverse movement at 12V. Originally, when I switched to 12V mode, I simply had a 6V signal that was a MOSFET that was the power switch to stop or go forward. Then I realized that I need to be able to reverse as well, and that there is no two-throw type MOSFET situation (?).
Disclaimer – I am not an electrical engineer. I have basic skills and understanding of electrical diagrams. I tried my best to make it as easy to follow as possible, but I know it could be better, and not all the correct symbols are used.
FYI, I have not included any wiring that drops the voltage for the PCB and anything related to the PCB, even if it is there in practice.
With the DPDT switch in the other position, the 6V signal from the PCB is used to power the motors. In the current positions shown… the relays are wired to provide a “normally closed” positive to the motors, which is controlled by a transistor (T1) supplied by the 6V PCB signal.
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If the PCB signal reverses, the NPN transistor (T2) should activate, which in turn activates both relay coils. The reverse voltage then flows directly through the relays and into the motor and is limited by the diodes. When the PCB signal stops, the relays de-energize and further movement stops because T1 is not activated.
After seeing the initial comments and searching in other forums and knowing that the contact voltage of the relay can be higher than the nominal voltage of the coil. I found this solution… what I’m looking for other than using 2 batteries in series and not being able to switch between 6v and 12v. (Note, I already know that a switch is in the green circle… Added by another user)
I have translated this into a more accurate and suitable diagram for my application and would like to know if this is an effective and efficient solution.
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With the never-ending quest for more horsepower and faster cars, today’s race cars have more electronics than ever before. To make more horsepower, cylinder pressure must be increased. To fire cylinders under these higher pressures, modern igniters are more powerful than ever. This powerful spark requires powerful drivers. Spark boxes can easily draw 40 amps or more from your electrical systems. This combined with other systems in your vehicle such as the solenoids used to control the converters, nitrous, acceleration, etc. puts a very high demand on your vehicle’s electrical system. This forced us to rethink the way we wire cars and consider basic electrical principles like Ohm’s Law.
Some cable guys or shops know what they are doing and do a regular job that also follows the techniques listed here to make sure all your equipment is installed correctly. However, many believe that a pitch is a pitch and power is power, as long as it’s on/off it’s done. If this is the case with your installer, prepare for problems. We often see beautiful wiring jobs that do not follow these basic electrical engineering practices, leaving the customer with problems down the road that waste thousands of dollars in lost wiring or even damaged parts and motors!
How power is distributed between your electrical systems and electronic devices can be critical to the proper functioning of your electronic devices. Wire size is important to prevent voltage sags or “browning”, but so is how the various tools and power are connected and the connection paths.
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They can occur when an electronic device and an electrical device such as a motor or solenoid share a common electrical path (power, ground, or both).
While an electric motor or light bulb may draw 5 amps while running, it may draw much more during cranking. A 5-amp solenoid valve can pull loads when engaged, causing a momentary shock to the power bus and the ground to which it is connected. This voltage drop or “transient” can only last for a few thousandths, hundredths or tenths of a second and you may not even notice it. The solenoid will probably work fine with no known problems, but some other electronics may not like voltage drops and malfunctions, causing reboots or lockouts. It may be a very short event, but it can ruin your day at the track.
Transients can occur when you turn off devices such as motors or solenoids. The energy stored in the magnetic fields of these devices can increase by hundreds of volts when the power is suddenly interrupted because the magnetic energy is immediately converted to electrical energy by the collapsing magnetic field. These spikes occur when the motor or solenoid is off, not on. These very fast voltages usually don’t damage electrical devices, but they can destroy electronics or do things you don’t expect or want. Corrupted data memories or corrupted software running on microcomputers and even destruction of electronic components are often the result of poorly wired circuits.
Electrical devices are things that use a lot of current for brute force operations like turning on a solenoid valve and creating an ignition spark. They will generally have large “fat” wires for electrical connections.
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Control devices are things that make decisions and send and receive low-current signals, such as data registers and start-up timing. They will generally have smaller gauge wires for electrical connections.
Some devices fall into both categories, such as a switch box that both produces a spark and receives a low current signal to know when to produce said sparks. You will often find that these devices have two sets of power or ground wires. There will be a large gauge set for the electrical section and a small gauge set for the control section.
Many of us have used an ohmmeter to measure resistance. We learned that very low resistance is a “short death”. However, in today’s competitive environment, it may help to rethink this perception. When very high currents are mixed with very precise, microprocessor-controlled electronics, there is no such thing as a “dead short”. Even a tenth of an ohm can cause big problems when we neglect to take care of it. When the current draw of a high power ignition system is combined with a set of high current solenoids, the total current can exceed 30 amps or much more. When you pass 30 amps through a cable with a resistance of one tenth of an ohm, the voltage drop between the ends of that cable will be 3 volts. A 3-volt change in the sensor reference voltage rails can have very unpredictable results.
Unfortunately, a tenth of an ohm is about as good as it gets in most situations. Even if you’re using a cable the size of your wrist, the crimped terminals at each end provide little resistance. We need to shift our focus from avoidance to management. Given that some resistance is inevitable, how can its effect on the performance of electronic devices be minimized?
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The second evil in racing electronic systems is transient voltage. In electronics, the word “transient” is used to describe a short-lived state caused by an event. For example, when you remove power from a high-energy solenoid valve, a short-duration (microsecond) pulse
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